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主力點、主力架、與系統元件:固定點各部的功能剖析

Updated: Apr 23

作者:American Alpine Club, June 28, 2016

翻譯:陳震宇 / Maurice maurice.chen67@gmail.com (如發現錯誤還請不吝指出,將儘速更正)


 

主力點、主力架、與系統元件: 固定點各部的功能剖析

The Masterpoint, The Shelf, The Components: Anchor Anatomy in Action

主力點|The Masterpoint

正如其名,「主力點」就是將一組固定點的所有強度匯聚在一起的集中點,能夠承受我們自我固定時的重量、確保的力量、以及在攀岩過程中伴隨的其他作業所產生的力量。就像一間房子裡的主臥室,主力點就是承擔所有不同力量來源最理想的位置,同時也提供了最充裕的空間、最高的安全性,以及最多樣化的操作可能性。

通常,有經驗的攀岩者必須經常辨識並運用主力點,實在很難想像還有其他更好的方式可以讓我們用來與固定點相連。然而,經驗較少的攀岩者經常會被五花八門的連結替代選項所迷惑 (例如主力架或各個系統元件);如果沒有明確指出方向,一個搞不清楚狀況的攀岩者很容易就會將自己扣入錯誤的位置,就如同不知情的訪客選擇下榻在工具間一樣。

在下列的文章與圖示中,我們將一一探索為何主力點能成為主力點、各式固定點系統的主力點外觀、以及主力架與系統元件為何 / 如何同樣能成為寶貴的連結點。最後,我們將審視一些欠缺主力架、以及主力架位置特別容易讓人混淆的特殊案例。

The masterpoint of an anchor is aptly named. It is designed to be the working focal point for anchoring, belaying, and a number of auxiliary tasks that might happen while rock climbing. Much like the Master Bedroom of a house, the masterpoint is where the residents of the anchor want to be. The Masterpoint offers the most capacious, the most secure, and the most versatile operational/organizational platform available.

Recognizing and utilizing a masterpoint is often so routine for practiced climbers, it is hard to imagine connecting to an anchor in any other way. However, alternative connection options (like the anchor shelf or components) often bewilder and confuse newer climbers. Without clear direction one way or the other, it is easy to imagine an uninformed anchor resident choosing to reside in the broom closet rather than the master bedroom.

In these sections and illustrations, we will explore why the master point is the MASTER point, variations on what a masterpoint can look like, and why and how the anchor shelf and components can be valuable connections too. Lastly, we'll examine some special cases anchors which may lack a shelf, or in some cases the actual location of the shelf might be confusing.


 

何謂主力點?|What is the Masterpoint?

將一組固定點系統提供的所有功能以最佳方式統整,並匯聚成一個連接點,即稱為「主力點」。在攀岩領域中,無論何種固定點架設方式,都有著眾所周知的核心原則:堅固、有備援、分力、簡潔、以及限制延伸,而主力點便是將這些特性以最佳方式統整,並匯聚成一處可供連接的點。接著讓我們看一些範例:

The masterpoint is the connection point of an anchor where all the values of the anchor are optimized and consolidated. We know that the core principles in all anchor constructions have been consistently applied in climbing applications. Those values are: Strength, Redundancy, Load Distribution, Simplicity, and Limited Extension. So, the masterpoint is the connection point where all those values are optimized and consolidated, where they all come together. Let’s look at some examples:

常見的「馬尾固定點」。一條 120 cm 扁帶環就能滿足攀岩者對於一組固定點的要求。有備份、能分力在各支點上、堅固、且容易架設和拆除,而這些優點的匯集處就稱之為主力點。

The Ponytail Anchor is common. Using a 4’ Nylon sling it creates all the values climbers have come to expect from an anchor. It is redundant, it distributes load evenly to the components, it is strong, and it is easy to build and take apart.The Masterpoint is where all those values come together.


同樣地,以一條 7 mm 的尼龍輔助繩所架設而成的「馬尾固定點」,同樣能以4個繩耳為主力點提供所有強度。

Similarly, a simple ponytail anchor with a cordellette provides a masterpoint with the effective strength of four strands of 7mm nylon cord.


傳攀常見的「三件式固定點」同樣也能提供一個主力點。圖中由三條 7 mm 輔助繩所組成的一個 21 mm 主力點,提供一個有效的固定點應該具備的所有要件:堅固、有備份、分力、並且簡潔。

The three piece anchor that is so common in trad climbing also provides a working masterpoint. Here, a 7mm nylon cord effectively produces a 21mm masterpoint and combines all the values needed for an effective anchor: strength, redundancy, load distribution, and simplicity.


在某些開闊、且支點彼此間相距甚遠的地形時,可利用一條 11 mm 的靜力繩將各個元件相連。 譯者註:圖中標示 BHK – Big Honking Knot,暫譯為大團結

An 11mm static rope can be used to combine components in the terrain that may be far apart from each other.


完攀並自我固定後,架設者必須選用一個繩結,不僅要能匯集所有支點所提供的強度,同時保留「有效固定點」應具備的所有要件。圖中的大團結 (BHK) 即為理想選擇之一,因為它提供了一個「有備援」的主力點。 譯者註:「有備援」意指連結 2 個支點,並含有至少 2 個繩耳的主力點。

Once tied off, the anchor builder has to select a knot that combines the strength of the components, and retains all the values of an effective anchor. Here, a BHK is an ideal choice. It creates a redundant masterpoint.


The Quad (四股繩系統) 是一個能夠自動調整的固定點系統,經常被應用在受力方向會改變的固定點上。它的有效主力點位於繩環弧線的最低點,通常由 4 股繩中的 3 股所構成。若其中一個支點失效,主力點上的所有鉤環將由第 4 股繩 (限制結) 截住。

The quad is a self-adjusting anchor system, and it is commonly applied to anchors where the direction of load changes direction. The effective masterpoint uses three of the four strands in the nadir of anchors arc. The fourth strand captures any carabiners or connections if one of the components were to fail.


就像 The Quad – 四股繩系統一樣,人們也經常利用一條 120 cm 的扁帶環架設可自動調整的 Sliding X 固定點。上圖的主力點位於圖中「X」形繩耳中,將扁帶環的兩股扁帶所能提供的有效強度匯集在一起。這個主力點不僅堅固,而且有備份,但是當固定點受力或承受過多重量後,主力點上方的兩個單結經常會變得難以解開。

Similar to the quad, a 4’ nylon sling is also commonly used to create a self-adjusting anchor. Here the masterpoint is inside the Magic X connection point, combining the effective strength of two isolated strands of the nylon sling. The masterpoint is both strong and redundant, but the two overhand knots can be difficult to untie after heavy loads are applied to the anchor.


 

何謂主力架?|What is the Shelf?

「主力架」則是附屬的輔助連接點,其具備的功能,與「主力點」幾乎完全相同。可以把它們想像成臥室閣樓與主臥室的關係;一間完善的臥室閣樓,雖然同樣具備主臥室的許多基本設施與功能,但若搬入臥室閣樓生活起居,卻放任主臥室閒置不用,是很奇怪的;反之,若平時在主臥室起居,卻又刻意走上閣樓更衣,也是非常怪異的一件事。換句話說,當有些操作必須在主力點上進行才能發揮正常功能,而主力點又無多餘空間時,主力架就是最好的地方。更明確地說,主力架同樣也必須提供主力點所具備的特性:堅固、有備援、能分力等。然而從結果來看,有些特定種類的固定點設置方式,是不會出現主力架的,以下便是幾個例子:

The shelf is an auxiliary attachment point that has almost the same values as the Masterpoint. Imagine it as a finished attic, relative to a Master Bedroom. A finished attic has many of the amenities of the Master Bedroom, but it would be weird to move in to the attic and leave the Master Bedroom empty. It would also be weird to sleep in the Master Bedroom, but dress in the attic. In other words, the shelf is a good place to put something that might not otherwise be functional in the masterpoint. For argument’s sake, the shelf should also present an attachment point that has redundancy, strength, and distributes load to the components. As a result, some anchors don’t even have a shelf. Let’s looks at some examples:

固定點上的「主力架」應具備「主力點」的所有必要功能。一個由 120 cm 扁帶環架設而成的「馬尾固定點」,其「主力架」係由主力點上方的兩股扁帶所組成。

The shelf of the anchor has the same essential properties as the masterpoint. For the ponytail anchor with 4’ nylon sling, the shelf clips both legs of anchor above the Masterpoint.


由輔助繩架設而成的「馬尾固定點」,其主力點係由 4 股 7 mm 的尼龍繩所組成。若要架設出具備相同條件的「主力架」,就必須在主力點上方將鉤環分別扣入連結每一個支點的所有繩耳中的每一股繩。註:若扣錯繩則主力架的條件不成立。

For the cordellette ponytail anchor, there are four strands of 7mm nylon in the masterpoint. To create that same kind of connection point, the shelf must clip both legs of the anchor above the masterpoint. That means that two stands of each leg effectively creates the anchor’s shelf.


三件或四件式的固定點,主力架應扣入連結每一個支點的每個繩耳,就如同主力點一樣。

With three of four piece anchors, the shelf clips into each leg, loading three strands, just like the masterpoint.


何謂固定點系統元件?|What are the components on an anchor?

「系統元件」,指的是將固定點連結到岩壁、雪、或冰上的所有物件,有時是樹木或體積較大的植物,有時是可移除的保護支點如岩楔 (nut) 或彈簧岩楔 (cam),有時也可能是固定的金屬設備,例如錨栓固定點。通常,固定點是透過合併所有系統元件所提供的強度後,才能創造出一個主力點,因此,任何一個系統元件本身並不具備主力點上的所有特性。系統元件就像一間主臥室裡的櫃子,在那樣空間除了用來收藏衣物之外,做其他事都會顯得奇怪;尤其在攀岩的領域中,如果在單一系統元件上操作任何重要的工作,甚至有可能是危險的行為。

我們來看看實際操作時的主力點、主力架、和系統元件的相對關係以及如何運用。

The components are the things that connect the anchor to the rock, snow, or ice. Components can be something as simple as a tree or large vegetation. It could be a piece of removable protection, like a cam or a nut. Or, it could be a fixed anchor, like a bolt. Usually an anchor combines the strength of its components to create a masterpoint, and therefore no single component every really duplicates the values that are found at the masterpoint. A component is like a cabinet or closet, relative to the master bedroom. It would be weird to do anything more than storage in a space like that. In some cases, especially in climbing, it might be dangerous to do anything important on a single component.

Let’s watch the masterpoint, the shelf, and the components at work. Look at how the master bedroom, the attic, and the closet are used to categorize the importance of the space according to things the climbing team places there.

確保者將自己固定在主力點上,因為主力點是整個系統中最安穩也最舒適的位置。

The belayer is anchored to the masterpoint because the masterpoint is the master bedroom.


如果主力點能夠同時容納確保者以及確保器時,就不需要使用主力架。不過,當確保者需要將暫時用不到的裝備掛在固定點上時,主力架的附加價值就會被凸顯出來。

There is no need to use the shelf because the masterpoint can hold both anchored belayer and accommodate the belay device. But, when the belayer starts storing things that are less vital, the shelf starts to present itself as a valuable auxiliary attachment point.


除了主力點之外,當繩隊需要一個與主力點具備相同功能的額外連接點時,主力架永遠是最佳選擇。例如背包,或許不必無時無刻都固定在固定點上,但它可能重量不輕,並且也可能有重要的裝備或物品在其中。

If the climbing teams needs an auxiliary attachment point that has the same values as the masterpoint, the shelf is always available. The backpack, for example, is not a primary resident of the anchor, but it might be heavy and have vital equipment inside.


最後,如果有些不重要的物品只是需要暫時固定在某處,且重量也不需考量時,就可將其固定在「系統元件」上。系統元件就像收納櫃或衣櫥,可以暫時存放一些待用的小物品。

Finally, if there is an object that just needs to be stored somewhere for a moment, something non-vital where the load-bearing properties and the security of the attachment are irrelevant, a single component acts like cabinet or a closet. It stores something small, temporarily.


 

主力點與主力架的各種難題、陷阱、與訣竅| Tricks, Traps, and Conundrums with Masterpoints and Shelves

有些類型的固定點並不具備「主力架」,而且還必須要有清楚的頭腦才能分辨出「主力點」與「主力架」的區別。因此,我們試圖整理出幾個範例,讓大家看看哪些類型的系統有「主力架」,而哪些則沒有。

Many anchors don’t have a shelf and it takes a clear headed understanding about what a masterpoint and shelf are, and what they are for, to sort out which anchors have a shelf and which do not. Let’s have a look at a few examples.

架設上方架繩系統時,常會採用以靜力繩架設的固定點,但有很多其實是不具備主力架的。

Many Toprope anchors that are built with a static rope effectively do not have a shelf.


仔細看,如果只將鉤環扣入大團結上方的一股繩,並不具備主力點 (大團結下方繩耳) 「有備份」的要件。

Looking closer, it is clear that clipping above the BHK on this anchor does not have the same material redundancy as the BHK itself.


同樣地,若直接以輔助繩的兩端連結支點進而架設成固定點時,原本主力架的位置並不具備主力點的所有要件。

Similarly, when the cordellette is untied and the anchor is configured by working the cordellette from end to end, the shelf cannot have the same qualities as the masterpoint.


上圖的固定點設置並不具備主力架。

This anchor effectively has no shelf.


當攀岩者碰到上圖這種獨立型的固定點時最容易受騙。許多人往往會像平常使用二件或三件式固定點一樣,抓了左右兩個繩耳的兩股繩後,就扣入鉤環作為主力架。譯者註:其實這是非常危險的,碰到這種固定點設置時請務必仔細觀察清楚,或避免使用主力架。

A monolithic anchor easily deceives the eye when a climber tries to clip the shelf in the same manner as they may be accustomed to while using three piece anchors.


攀岩者常常習慣直接抓兩股繩後扣入鉤環作為主力架,但它很有可能是「錯誤的主力架」。

The climber accustomed to simply grabbing two strands may not be clipping the shelf. It might be a false shelf.


由側面看就能輕易發現,這個「錯誤的主力架」其實只扣入兩個繩耳的其中一個。

In profile, it becomes clear that the false shelf is only connecting to one of the two strands.


要在獨立型固定點上架設「正確的主力架」時,應如上圖所示。

The actual shelf on a monolithic anchor looks like this.


自我調整型的固定點,像是 The Quad 或具備限制結的 Sliding X,並不具備主力架。Sliding X 最大的優點就是「有備援」,以及可在一定範圍內以滑動方式為系統元件 (或支點) 平均分攤受力。

Self Adjusting anchors like the Magic X with Load Limiting Knots or the Quad, don’t really have a shelf. The Magic X only offers one point that boasts material redundancy and loads the components equally through a range of motion.


相較之下,The Quad 在兩個限制結之間提供了 4 股繩,這讓主力點在使用上多了一些選擇。扣入 3 股繩即可得到最高的強度 (無時無刻都應扣入至少 3 股繩),而第 4 股繩與限制結則可在其中一個支點失效時截住鉤環防止其拖出,扮演「備援」的功能,但是,扣入主力點的 3 股繩也意味著屏除主力架的功能 (譯者註:本文對於 The Quad 主力點的定義,是限制結下方 4 股繩之中的 3 股;若只取 2 股時,另外 2 股繩即為主力架),因為在 The Quad 系統中,沒有其他部位能像主力點一樣具備「自動均力」的功能。

The Quad, by comparison, offers four strands of material that hang between the load-limiting knots. Which means that there are few options to designate a masterpoint. Using three strands as the effective masterpoint offers optimal strength (loading three strand of cordellette at all times) and the remaining strand creates redundancy behind the load limiting knots. But, clipping three strands effectively negates the opportunity to use an anchor shelf. There is no other point on the anchor that has the same self-adjustment and load-bearing strength as those three strands of cordellette.


亦可只取 2 股繩,將 The Quad 提供的 4 股繩對分成 2 個強度相等、能自動均力、也都具有備份的兩個連接點。

Instead, clipping two stands of the Quad offers two connection points that have identical strength, self-adjustment, and redundancy properties.


常以兩個快扣架設的運動攀登固定點,其實也隱藏了難以察覺的主力架。

A sport climbing anchor, commonly just a pairing of quickdraws, also has a masterpoint that is difficult to identify.


同時扣入左右兩側的兩個快扣,即為運動攀登固定點的主力點。所幸運動攀登很少碰到需要使用主力點的狀況。

Clipping into both carabiners right alongside the rope is effectively the masterpoint of a sport anchor. Luckily, sport climbing rarely necessitates the use of a masterpoint.



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