UIAA 攀岩錨栓安全規範 (123 standard) – 更新公告

Updated: May 27, 2021






International Climbing and Mountaineering Federation

UNION INTERNATIONALE DES ASSOCIATIONS D'ALPINISME

 

CORROSION AND

STRESS CORROSION CRACKING

FAILURE OF CLIMBING ANCHORS

UIAA 123 standard update, 2020

「一般腐蝕」及「應力腐蝕」之攀岩錨栓斷裂

國際山岳聯盟《攀岩錨栓安全規範 (UIAA 123)》

更新公告,2020



原文:https://www.theuiaa.org/documents/safety/2020_UIAAclimbinganchorsupdate_ENG_Chinese.pdf

翻譯:王大濟 | Translation by Ta-Chi Wang


UIAA Safety Commission 2020 | safetylabel@theuiaa.org



UIAA 123 Rock Anchor V4_2020

國際山岳聯盟《攀岩錨栓安全規範》第四版 2020


The UIAA Safety Commission is composed of national federation delegates, manufacturers and accredited testing laboratories.

The subject of corrosion and stress corrosion cracking failure has been a work in progress for the last ten years within SafeCom. December 2020, the Commission is able to release the resultsand update its Standard UIAA 123 Rock Anchors V4_2020. This major update is based on scientific research performed by Brest (France) and Prague (Czech Republic) laboratories, coordinated and funded by the UIAA, for the safety of all climbers worldwide.

This Standard has been updated based on SafeCom’s best knowledge of atmospherically induced stress corrosion cracking, i.e. with respect mainly to chloride resistance. Nevertheless, in some locations and environments this is not the appropriate procedure and where additional tests need to be performed, e.g. under high sulphate content. Further research is ongoing to gain a clearer understanding of this phenomena and how to determine which locations are concerned.

UIAA 安全委員會 係由會員 (國家級山岳聯盟) 代表、製造商、和經由 UIAA 認可的實驗室組成。

過去十年來,UIAA 安全委員會一直都在進行一般腐蝕以及應力腐蝕研究。2020 年 12 月,安全委員會終能公佈研究結果並更新 UIAA123 攀岩錨栓 V4_2020 規範。此更新主要是基於 UIAA 主持並資助的布雷斯特 (法國) 和布拉格 (捷克共和國) 的實驗室科學研究,以確保全球登山者以及攀岩者的安全。

此次更新是根據 UIAA 安全委員會針對「環境引發應力腐蝕」,亦即針對氯化物為腐蝕原因之最佳知識所定。但,在一些地區或特定環境,氯化物並不是唯一原因,例如在含高硫酸鹽的環境也可能發生應力腐蝕,關於後者,相關測試以及研究是必要的,也正在進行,以更清楚了解環境引發應力腐蝕的原因,並用以判斷可能發生的區域。

 

Reminder of the quick facts

重點事實回顧

Recent incidents indicate unexpected failures of climbing anchors after beingset-in place for a few months/years and under low loads. These failures occur mostly on stainless steel anchors due to environmental degradation, i.e. corrosion and more specifically stress corrosion cracking (SCC).

  • In worst cases, anchors can break under the weight of ten to twenty kilograms –obviously less than the average climber’s weight.

  • Usually in coastal locations, but even up to a few kilometres away from the coast.

  • All material in warm coastal areas shall be considered as potentially affected

  • Corrosion is not always visible and can occur in cracks not seen by visual inspection.

  • Stress corrosion cracking is the most virulent and canvery rapidly initiate cracks shortlyafter anchor

  • installation. In some cases, within a few months and almost certainly within a few years.

  • All metallic anchors, including parts made of stainless steel or aluminium alloys are impacted, except those which are rated UIAA 123-SCC.

The most critical factors are:

  • “Moderate” relative humidity locations (The very dry and very humid locations are OK, it is the in-between the two extremes that is a problem).

  • Areas NOT being washed clean by a rainfall (even being washed by the sea can be OK!).

  • Temperature: SCC can occur at 20°C, higher temperatures are worse.